About the Expert: Deepanshu Singh is an educator and a mentor for UPSC aspirants. He has guided many aspirants in the past with his expertise on subjects such as International relations, Polity, and more. He has authored books on International Relations for Civil Services Examination. Beyond academia, Singh serves as a public policy expert and shaped strategies for India’s G20 Presidency.

The Kesavananda Bharati judgment of 1973, which introduced the basic structure doctrine, marked its 50th anniversary. This doctrine ensures that certain fundamental features of the Constitution cannot be altered by the Parliament.

2. Independence of District Judiciary – Basic Structure:

The Supreme Court reaffirmed that the independence of the district judiciary is an integral part of the Constitution’s basic structure, emphasizing the need for judicial autonomy.

3. Elections and Election Commission related topics:

— The President gave her assent to the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023.

— Important provision of RPA 1951 related to disqualification and registration of political parties.

Festive offer

— Right to vote and Right to contest being in Jail

— Electoral bond declared unconstitutional by SC

— Political funding limit for MP vs MLA elections-Section 77 (1) of the Representation of the People Act (RPA), 1951, candidates are expected to keep an account of expenditure from date on which he/she has been nominated till date of declaration of result. Spending more than maximum limit of election expenses is regarded as a corrupt practice under section 123(6) of RPA, 1951.

— Star Campaigners: The rules around Star Campaigners have been clarified, stating that their travel expenses for campaigning are not counted as part of a candidate’s election expenditure, provided they don’t campaign specifically for a candidate.

— National Party Status: The Election Commission has recognized the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) as a national party, while the All India Trinamool Congress, Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), and the Communist Party of India (CPI) lost their national party status. .

— Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioner Act, 2003: The Act regulates the appointment, conditions of service, and term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners. It introduces a Search Committee for panel preparation and a Selection Committee for appointments.

4. National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Act, 2023:

The Act establishes the National Capital Civil Services Authority and empowers the Lieutenant Governor with discretion over several matters, including legislative assembly proceedings.

5. Sixth Schedule Vs Fifth Schedule in context of Ladakh:

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution, under Article 244(2) and Article 275(1), is provided for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram. It empowers the Governor to create Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) and Autonomous Regional Councils (ARCs) in these four states. Ladakh has LAHDC under their Legislative Act.

6. Uniform Civil Code:

The Uttarakhand Assembly passed the Uniform Civil Code (UCC) Bill, becoming the first legislature in independent India to pass a law that proposes common rules on marriage, divorce, inheritance of property, and live-in relationships for all citizens, irrespective of their religion. .

7. Places of Worship Act 1991 in the context of Ayodhya, Mathura and Gyanvapi:

Places of the Act declares that the religious character of a place of worship shall continue to be the same as it was on August 15, 1947. It says no person shall convert any place of worship of any religious denomination into one of a different denomination or section. It also imposes a positive obligation on the State to maintain the religious character of every place of worship as it existed at the time of Independence.

8. Parliament related topics:

— Different Bills

— Power of Rajya Sabha in comparison to Lok Sabha

— Automatic dissolution of Lok Sabha

— Council of Ministers vs Cabinet

— Interim budget, types of grants

— Important committees- BAC, Estimates committee, Ethics committee

(The Trinamool Congress MP Mahua Moitra was expelled from the Lok Sabha after an Ethics Committee report recommended her expulsion from the Parliament. Set up in Rajya Sabha in 1997 and in Lok Sabha in the year 2000. In Lok Sabha, it was an adhoc committee till 2015.)

9. Role of Governors (Discretionary Powers):

Recently, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Punjab moved the Supreme Court against their respective Governors over the pending bills.